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I'm Attorney Robert Wood. I have handled matters involving Texas non-compete agreements for nearly 30 years. I use this blog to help employers and workers understand the complexities surrounding the enforcement of non-competes. If you have questions, please don’t hesitate to shoot me a message or give me a call at 469-754-2812.

Texas Covenant Not to Compete Agreements Law: Can An Employer Protect Its Customer Relationships?

May 16, 2007 / By Robert Wood

In several states, an employer may–via a non-compete agreement–prevent a departing employee from taking advantage of the relationships the employee developed with the former employer’s customers.  This is true whether or not the identities of the former employer’s customers are "confidential."

In those states, therefore, the former employer can successfully contend, "We introduced you to our customers and you’ve developed good relationships with them, but you can’t compete with us by taking advantage of those relationships."

There are actually a couple of Texas Supreme Court cases that stand for the proposition that protecting customer relationships is an interest sufficient to justify a non-compete agreement.  However, those cases have been largely ignored in recent years.

In Peat Marwick Main & Co. v. Haass, 818 S.W.2d 381, 387 (Tex. 1991), the court noted:


The fundamental legitimate business interest that may be protected by such covenants is in preventing employees or departing partners from using the business contacts and rapport established during the relationship of representing the accounting firm to take the firm’s customers with him.

In an earlier case, Henshaw v. Kroenecke, 656 S.W.2d 416, 418 (Tex. 1983), the court had stated:


Henshaw had a right to protect himself from the possibility that Kroenecke would establish a rapport with the clients of the business and upon termination take a segment of that clientele with him.

Today, whenever an employee leaves and begins "stealing" his former employer’s customers, courts focus on whether the identities of those customers are "confidential."  Usually, they are not.

To determine whether customer identities are confidential, courts ask questions such as, "Can the information be easily located (e.g., in telephone books or trade journals)?, and "Did the employer take reasonable steps to keep the information confidential?"  These standards are difficult to meet.

But in several other states, the employer need not prove that the information is confidential.  Rather, protection of the employer’s relationship with its customer–whether or not the customer’s identity is secret–is sufficient to support a non-compete agreement.  A few Texas cases used to speak in those terms as well.


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About the Author

Robert Wood has been a Texas trial lawyer since 1993. During that time, he has represented small, mid-sized, and Fortune 100 companies in business and employment litigation matters all over Texas and the United States. He has also advised and represented hundreds of individuals in employment litigation matters. Read more about Robert Wood